Work in progress -- this page is far from being finished.

Linux Operating Systems

Linux is popular on servers and supercomputers.

Created
8/15/2019

Unix/Linux Desktop Environments

Unlike Windows, Linux doesn't have a graphical user interface (GUI) built in the kernel. If you don't want to use only a text-mode console, there are many Desktop Environments to choose from. The following list mentions only some of the most popular ones. Usually it's possible to install any of these desktop environments in any Linux distribution.

GNOME
GNOME by default, unlike most other more conservative desktop environments, uses Wayland compositor instead of relying on obsolete and insecure X11 server protocol. It's also the only enterprise-grade desktop available. Enterprise Linux distributions (such as Red Hat, SUSE) usually offer GNOME as the only desktop environment.
KDE
KDE looks similar to Windows and is highly customizable. In KDE, you can easily set almost anything. Beginners can be easily confused by the amount of clickable options they are provided. And in my experience, KDE crashes from time to time (the desktop behind the windows goes black and then reappears, windows sometimes close itself, especially in Settings). And it still needs X11 server, no stable Wayland yet.
XFCE
XFCE is very lightweight desktop which can be useful on old or underpowered computers. But it's a bit conservative and outdated. No Wayland.
Mate
Take a very old version of GNOME (GNOME 2), make it a bit more crashy and rename it. This is Mate.
Unity
A discontinued desktop previously used in Ubuntu Linux.
Cinnamon
Cinnamon is an older version of GNOME 3 highly modified to make it uglier and more "beginner friendly". It significantly lags behind current GNOME. And, of course, no Wayland support.
Windowmaker
Excellent choice for very old computers (90's-2000's). Uses X11 server. Very lightweight and similar to NeXTSTEP system graphical interface from early 90's.
iceWM
Also excellent for very old computers. X11 only.

Desktop Environment

gtk freeze
Obsolete version because of fears of breakage (Cinnamon)
used by commercial
Todo
spin offs may not survive for long or provide the latest features
Todo
kde gnome only full featured desktops
Todo
kde many options, some do not work
Todo
gnome too few options, more stable
Todo
gnome too heavy
Todo

Watch out for

remove dependencies after remove
automatically?

Distributions of Linux

Ubuntu

Ubuntu distributions

Red Hat

Red Hat distributions

SUSE

SUSE distributions

Debian

Debian distributions

Arch

Arch distributions

Other

Other independent distributions